Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a preventable and treatable disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response inn the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases .

It includes chronic bronchitis ( cough and sputum for at least 3 consecutive months in each of 2 consecutive years ) and emphysema ( abnormal permanent enlargement of theĀ  airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles )


Cough with sputum ( yellow /green/white )

Shortness of breath

Tightness of chest

Weight loss

Edema ( swelling ) of legs ,ankles ,feet


Exposure to tobacco smoke

Occupational exposure to coal dust , silica and cadmium

Low birth weight

Childhood infections and maternal smoking may affect growth of lung during childhood

Recurrent infections

Low socioeconomic status

Cannabis smoking

Genetic factors include alpha antitrypsin deficiency

Airway hyper reactivity



Recurrent lung infection

Atrial fibriilation

Heart failure

Sleep apnea


Depression and anxiety

Please follow and like us:

Try Our 30 Days Trial Plan

Board-certified physicians
available by phone or online video
24 hours a day