It is an acute highly infectious disease of childhood characterized by fever and catarrhal symptoms followed by typical rash.
Agent : RNA myxovirus
Source of infection : Cases of measles
Infective material : Secretion of nose, throat, respiratory tract along with rashes in early stage.
Communicability : During prodromal stage and eruptive stage.
Mode of transmission : · Droplet infection
- Portal of entry – respiratory tract
- Also possible through conjunctiva
Incubation period : 10 days from exposure to onset fever and 14 days to appearance of rash.
- Prodromal stage
- begins 10 days after infection
- characterized by fever, cough, coryza, sneezing, nasal discharge, redness of eye, lachrymation, photophobia.
- Koplik spot appears on buccal mucosa opposite first and second molar.
- Eruptive Phase
- characterized by typical dusky red, macular, maculopapular rash, which begins behind the ear.
- Extends down to the body with 2-3 days.
- Post Measles Stage
- Child has lost weight
- Susceptibility to many infections
- Growth retardation and diarrhoea
Diarrhoea, Pneumonia, Otitis media and some respiratory complication.
Measles vaccination can be given independently or combined with mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR).
- Isolation for 7 days after onset of rash.
- Immunization of contact within 2 days of exposure.
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