It is a protozoal disease caused by protozoa plasmodium and transmitted by infective female anopheles mosquito.  Typical attacks have 3 stages –

  1. Chill stage
  2. Heat stage
  3. Sweat stage



Agent : Malaria is caused due to 4 distinct species of malarial parasite – P.vivax, P.falciparum, P.malarie, P.ovale.  In India, 70% of malaria is due to p.vivax.

Reservoir of infection : Chimpanzees in tropical Africa.  A child or adult harbouring sexual form of parasite.

Period of communicability : Malaria is communicable as long as mature, viable gametocytes exist in circulating blood in sufficient density to infect vector mosquito.

P.vivax – 4-5 days after appearance of a sexual partner.

P.falciparum – 10-12 days after appearance of a sexual partner.


Age : All ages, new born infants show considerable resistance to infection by P.falciparum.

Sex : Male preponderance

Race : Individual with sickle cell trait are protected

Pregnancy : Risk is increased

Socio-economic development : developing countries

Population mobility : Increases the risk

Occupation : Rural disease related to agricultural parasite

Human habit : Sleeping, nomadism

Housing : Ill-ventilated and ill lighted houses.


Season : Maximum from July to November

Temperature : 20o – 30o C

Humidity : Relative humidity of 60%

Rainfall : Moderate rainfall causes increase in breeding of parasite, heavy rainfall destroys the breeding ground.

Attitude : Anopheline mosquito does not survive beyond 2000-2500 mtr.


Inoculation of female anopheles mosquito of sporozoite in human being.


P.falciparum               :    12 (9-14 days)

P.vivax                       :    14 (8-17 days)

P.ovale                       :    28 (18-40 days)

P.malarie                    :    17 (16-18 days)

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