Achalasia Cardia


The word ‘Achalasia’ has been derived from the Greek word which means ‘failure to relaxation’. Achalasia cardia is a motor disorder of the oesophageal smooth muscles in which the oesophageal body fails to relax during swallowing or peristalsis is absent or feeble.

The lower oesophageal sphincter may be hypertensive and doesn’t relax completely with swallowing.

Due to the non-relaxing lower oesophageal sphincter, the intra-oesophageal pressure is higher than the gastric pressure.



The cause is unknown, although failure to local nerve supply is implicated.

Follow are the important leading cause:

  • Oesophagitis
  • Hiatus Hernia
  • Helicobacter pyloric infection
  • Adenocarcinoma of esophagus


  • More common in adults than children.
  • Most common between 25 – 60 years of age.
  • Dysphagia- difficulty in swallowing
  • Inability to swallow solids and liquids
  • Odynophagia- Pain while swallowing
  • Sensation of choking or something stuck in throat while eating
  • Heart burn with heaviness in chest
  • Hiccups and occasional burping


What can Achalasia Cardia lead to?

  • Reflux oesophagitis and peptic stricture may develop.
  • It increase the chances of lung problem and severe weight loss.
  • It increase the chances of lung problem and severe weight loss.
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